Peru is a democratic republic, whereby the President of Peru is both head of state and head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Congress. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

Quick facts

  • Population: 31.48 million (2016, estimate) Urban: 76.7% Rural: 23.3%
  • Capital: Lima
  • National day: 28 July (Independence from Spain in 1821)
  • Area: 1,285,216 square kilometres
  • GDP (real): US$ 191 billion (2015)
  • Per Capita Income: US$ 6,027 (2015)
  • Currency: Sol (S/)  3.2 soles per US dollar
  • Religions: Roman Catholic 81.3%, Evangelical 12.5%, other 3.3%, none 2.9% (2014 est.)

Executive branch

Head of state and government: President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski Godard (since 28 July 2016);

First Vice President Martin Alberto Vizcarra Cornejo (since 28 July 2016);

Second Vice President Mercedes Rosalba Araoz Fernandez (since 28 July 2016).

·         Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the President.

See full members of the Cabinet here.

Legislative branch

Unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Perú (130 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed party list).

Judicial branch

Highest court: Supreme Court (consists of 16 judges divided into civil, criminal, and constitutional-social chambers).

Subordinate courts: Court of Constitutional Guarantees; Superior Courts or Cortes Superiores; specialized civil, criminal, and mixed courts; 2 types of peace courts in which professional judges and selected members of the local communities preside.


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